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The Nervous System
The nervous system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that coordinates and regulates the functions of the body. It is responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information from both internal and external environments. The nervous system is divided into two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS includes the nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
The neurons, or nerve cells, are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. They are responsible for transmitting electrical and chemical signals throughout the body. Neurons are composed of three main parts: the cell body, the dendrites, and the axon. The cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles, while the dendrites receive signals from other neurons. The axon is responsible for transmitting signals to other neurons or to muscle cells.
The nervous system is responsible for a wide range of functions, including sensory processing, motor control, and cognitive function. Sensory neurons transmit information from sensory receptors to the CNS, where it is processed and integrated. Motor neurons transmit signals from the CNS to muscles and other effector organs, allowing for movement and other bodily functions. Interneurons are neurons that communicate between other neurons in the CNS, allowing for complex information processing and cognitive functions such as memory, learning, and decision-making. The nervous system also includes specialized cells called glial cells, which support and protect neurons. Glial cells include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, among others.